​    & Resources

Contemporary food systems have a very significant, and generally very negative, impacts on the environment and are responsible for tremendous consumption and corruption of natural resources. The environmental and climate-related impacts of food systems are determined in large part by the kinds of food that are produced and distributed, as well as by the associated inputs and outputs. Impacts also vary based on how much food is produced and how much of it is actually consumed by humans, as opposed to being fed to animals, turned into biofuels, or wasted.
Environmental degradation harms the well-being of current and future generations in ways that are both readily observable and not yet fully appreciated. It also has negative consequences for other species, reduces biodiversity, and impairs ecosystem integrity. Because human practices and preferences around food are so consequential, the trade-offs between agri-food production, environmental impacts, and resource intensity raise ethical questions related to sustaining and, where possible, restoring resource stocks and planetary balance.